Senin, 30 Mei 2011

History of coffee

The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the thirteenth century. It has been believed that Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were the first to discover and recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant.The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 AD and is probably apocryphal.From Ethiopia, coffee was said to have spread to Egypt and Yemen. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.


Etymology

The word "coffee" entered English in 1598 via Dutch koffie. This word was created via Turkish kahve, the Turkish pronunciation Arabic qahwa, a truncation of qahhwat al-bun or wine of the bean. One possible origin of the name is the Kingdom of Kaffa in Ethiopia, where the coffee plant originated; its name there is bunn or bunna.

First uses

There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Yemenite Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili. When traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality, and, upon trying the berries that the birds had been eating, experienced the same vitality. Another story involves a goat-herd, Kaldi, who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself. His exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a Muslim holy man in a nearby monastery. But the holy man disapproved of their use and threw them into the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed and the holy men came. The roasted beans were quickly raked from the embers, ground up, and dissolved in hot water, yielding the world's first cup of coffee. The Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo tribe, were the first to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant.Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea arabica varieties, found to be of low diversity but which retained some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, and closely-related diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica; however, no direct evidence has ever been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant, or known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century.

Arab world and spread to Europe

The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.From Mocha, coffee spread to Egypt and North Africa,and by the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.


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Syrian Bedouin from a beehive village in Aleppo, Syria, sipping the traditional murra (bitter) coffee, 1930

The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant Philippe Sylvestre Dufour[8] is a reference to bunchum in the works of the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known as Rhazes in the West,[9] but more definite information on the preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee berries dates from several centuries later.

The most important of the early writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, who in 1587 compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa.[10] He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani (d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee (circa 1454).
“     He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour.[2]     ”

Coffee's usefulness in driving away sleep made it popular among Sufis, who used it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A translation[11] traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to Mecca and Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Istanbul.

Coffee beans were first exported from Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the bean.[12] The first coffeehouse opened in Istanbul in 1554.[13] Coffee was at first not well received. In 1511, it was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox imams at a theological court in Mecca[citation needed]. However, the popularity of the drink led these bans to be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Selim I, with Grand Mufti Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi issuing a celebrated fatwa allowing the consumption of coffee.[14] In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses containing coffee beans were sacked.

Similarly, coffee was banned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church some time before the 12th century.However, in the second half of the 19th century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking, and its consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to Richard Pankhurst, "this was largely due to [Emperor] Menilek, who himself drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the belief of the clergy that it was a Muslim drink."



Europe


Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692
Coffee was noted in Ottoman Aleppo by the German physician botanist Leonhard Rauwolf, the first European to mention it, as chaube, in 1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European travellers.
Coffee was also imported to Italy from the Ottoman Empire. The vibrant trade between Venice and the Muslims in North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice, charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was introduced to Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after controversy over whether it was acceptable for Catholics to consume was settled in its favor by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the drink. The first European coffee house (apart from those in the Ottoman Empire, mentioned above) was opened in Venice in 1645.

England

Largely through the efforts of the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company, coffee became available in England no later than the 16th century according to Leonhard Rauwolf's 1583 account. The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael's Alley in Cornhill. The proprietor was Pasqua Rosée, the servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment. The Grand Cafe in Oxford is alleged to be the first Coffee House in England, opened in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob. It is still open today, but has since become a popular Wine Bar. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England. Popularity of coffeehouses spread rapidly in Europe, and later, America.
The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, but does appear to have been common in Europe. In Germany women frequented them, but in England they were banned. Many believed coffee to have several medicinal properties in this period. For example, a 1661 tract entitled "A character of coffee and coffee-houses", written by one "M.P.", lists some of these perceived benefits:
'Tis extolled for drying up the Crudities of the Stomack, and for expelling Fumes out of the Head. Excellent Berry! which can cleanse the English-man's Stomak of Flegm, and expel Giddinesse out of his Head.
Not everyone was in favour of this new commodity, however. For example, the anonymous 1674 "Women's Petition Against Coffee" declared:
...the Excessive Use of that Newfangled, Abominable, Heathenish Liquor called COFFEE [...] has [...] Eunucht our Husbands, and Crippled our more kind Gallants, that they are become as Impotent, as Age

France

Antoine Galland (1646–1715) in his aforementioned translation described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate: "We are indebted to these great [Arab] physicians for introducing coffee to the modern world through their writings, as well as sugar, tea, and chocolate." Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix, the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot, who had travelled through the East. On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix. However, the major spread of the popularity of this beverage in Paris was soon to come. In 1669, Soleiman Agha, Ambassador from Sultan Mehmed IV, arrived in Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of coffee beans. Not only did they provide their French and European guests with coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the royal court. Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians.

Melange in Vienna

Austria

The real first coffeehouse in Austria opened in Vienna in 1683 after the Battle of Vienna, by using supplies from the spoils obtained after defeating the Turks. The officer who received the coffee beans, Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding sugar and milk to the coffee. Until recently, this was celebrated in Viennese coffeehouses by hanging a picture of Kulczycki in the window. Melange is the typical Viennese coffee, which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water.

Netherlands

The race among Europeans to make off with some live coffee trees or beans was eventually won by the Dutch in the late 17th century, when they allied with the natives of Kerala against the Portuguese and brought some live plants back from Malabar to Holland, where they were grown in greenhouses. The Dutch began growing coffee at their forts in Malabar, India, and in 1699 took some to Batavia in Java, in what is now Indonesia.
Within a few years the Dutch colonies (Java in Asia, Surinam in Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe.

India

The first record of coffee growing in India is following the introduction of coffee beans from Yemen by Baba Budan to the hills of Chikmagalur in 1670. Since then coffee plantations have become established in the region, extending south to Kodagu.

Americas

Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to Martinique in the Caribbean circa 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later there were 18,680 coffee trees in Martinique enabling the spread of coffee cultivation to Haiti, Mexico and other islands of the Caribbean. The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee. The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African slave laborers. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered there.
Coffee also found its way to the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean known as the Isle of Bourbon. The plant produced smaller beans and was deemed a different variety of Arabica known as var. Bourbon. The Santos coffee of Brazil and the Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the progeny of that Bourbon tree. Circa 1727, the King of Portugal sent Francisco de Mello Palheta to French Guinea to obtain coffee seeds to become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty obtaining these seeds yet he captivated the French Governor's wife and she in turn, sent him enough seeds and shoots which would commence the coffee industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from Brazil was introduced into Kenya and Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey.
Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822.After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.
Cultivation was taken up by many countries in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous Indian people. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants. The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.
In the 1930s Brazil took of as major producer of coffee leaving behind their early caffeinate yerba mate industry, that then Argentina took over.

Production

The first step in Europeans' wresting the means of production was effected by Nicolaes Witsen, the enterprising burgomaster of Amsterdam and member of the governing board of the Dutch East India Company who urged Joan van Hoorn, the Dutch governor at Batavia that some coffee plants be obtained at the export port of Mocha in Yemen, the source of Europe's supply, and established in the Dutch East Indies;[the project of raising many plants from the seeds of the first shipment met with such success that the Dutch East India Company was able to supply Europe's demand with "Java coffee" by 1719. Encouraged by their success, they soon had coffee plantations in Ceylon, Sumatra and other Sunda islands. Coffee trees were soon grown under glass at the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden, whence slips were generously extended to other botanical gardens. Dutch representatives at the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Utrecht presented their French counterparts with a coffee plant, which was grown on at the Jardin du Roi, predecessor of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris.
The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain Gabriel des Clieux, who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist Antoine de Jussieu, who was loath to disfigure the king's coffee tree. Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult voyage, shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them from a Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the Batavian trade. Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the West Indies, and established them in Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue in addition to Martinique, where a blight had struck the cacao plantations, which were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of three years, is attributed to France through its colonization of many parts of the continent starting with the Martinique and the colonies of the West Indies where the first French coffee plantations were founded.
The first coffee plantation in Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col. Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the germ plasm originally taken from Yemen to Batavia, from French Guiana. By the 1800s, Brazil's harvests would turn coffee from an elite indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most other countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied heavily on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the plantations until the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of coffee in 17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the habit of tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).
For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil was the biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade. However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities to other nations, such as Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Vietnam, now second only to Brazil as the major coffee producer in the world. Large-scale production in Vietnam began following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995. Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta.
Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century, and much of that not from the south of the country but from the environs of Harar in the northeast. The Kingdom of Kaffa, home of the plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in 1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela, and greatly increased afterwards: 100,000 kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in 1927-8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port.Coffee plantations were also developed in Arsi Province at the same time, and were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway. While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the Railway, this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed exports of "Harari" coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in 1936.
Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export, but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres (2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South Wales and Cooktown. Today there are several producers of Arabica coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented in 1981.

Coffee and slavery

According to Marcondes, in the reputable scholarly article entitled Small and Medium Slaveholdings in the Coffee Economy of the Vale do Paraíba, 27.9% of the population is enslaved. Most of the areas in Vale do Paraíba that have larger amounts of slavery are the communities in which coffee is grown. Marcondes found in some areas that coffee holders held about 10 slaves each to grow, and this depended on the size of the plantation. Marcondes used “Almanak da província de São Paulo para 1873” to cross-examine the information she had found through her own research about slave holding. The Almanak contains a list of slavery and owners listed from the year 1873. Primarily, however, Marcondes surveyed the slave classification accounts of the areas under dispute, which contain the register number and name of the slave. Shockingly, throughout the areas there are many differentiations, in numbers of slaves and size of plantations, however, Marcondes refutes that the slavery did not change throughout the 1900s. Conclusively, it ends with the statement that slaveholdings increased, with the increased popularity of coffee and the expansion of coffee production. 
Singleton, an anthropologic scholar from Syracuse University, reports that Cuba had over 1 million slaves imported to them from Africa in order to work their crops. Although the production and selling of sugar in the country began the slave holding, the presence of coffee played an equally important role in establishing slavery in Cuba. When coffee reached Cuba, farmers welcomed it. This is because Coffee required less land to grow and lacked the need for machinery to process it. The slaveholding that went on during this time was managed by a prison-like atmosphere creating much unrest and inevitable rebellions against the wealth that enslaved them. Coffee production in Cuba was short-lived due to competition with Brazilian coffee, but the slave holding with sugar was as equally prominent with coffee’s presence in Cuba, (however short-lived it may have been).
Slomkowski argues in "Chocolate’s Dark Side" that coffee and cocoa are both grown, for the most part, in developing worlds. Produced from the Cacao tree, coffee beans need a relatively hot climate to flourish, making the Central and South America’s a tremendous supplier of all things cocoa. Though, Slomkowski points out that around 70% of the crop is actually grown in Africa, under very dark circumstances. In fact the entire history of coffee has been dark. Besides the switch to growing coffee in the rainforest continuing the plight of deforestation, child labor continues to work along the Ivory Coast, performing egregrious acts unsuitable for children, and earning next to nothing in a year’s time. This corruption is due to the lack of interruption from corporations, and remains a problem to this day. 
In chapter 7 from "Coffee: A Dark History", slavery’s inconceivable roots in the production of coffee, come to light through Wild’s evocative writing and serious research. The world’s second most traded commodity, otherwise known as coffee, comes to us in the form of a trading tool, an economic bubble of wealth, and something that turned into a slave’s job to grow and handle. Early eighteenth century, coffee made its first premier unto the Caribbean’s fertile soil and naturally, flourished, upholding that just about anywhere could now grow coffee. Due to the fact that the slave labor already had it’s powerful grip on the Caribbean Islands, and because of the plantation fueled economy; coffee, its production and its sale became quickly established not only there, but also everywhere. Thus, as coffee spread through the hemisphere quickly, it raised the slavery-required labor along with it. As the coffee commodity increases, so does the need for the slaves to work the crop. Coffee becomes very rooted in the newly formed America, becoming a source of power and different beverage than their forefathers in England would have enjoyed. From this however, the slave trade, slave labor, and harsh conditions on plantations, continued to grow; now, so deeply rooted in coffee, the sale and production. But with the Continental System, instated to choke off the British and allow various countries to gain control of economies but prohibiting them from access to coffee. With this shut out, coffee prices increased but the want for this delicious beverage did not lessen. 

[edit] Time Line of Coffee

  • > 5 AD The coffee was discovered in Ethiopia.
  • 700-1000 Coffee was first known by the Arabs as an energy drink . The spread of coffee was started simultaneously with the spread of Islam.
  • 1000 Ibn Sina investigated the chemical substance of coffee.
  • 1400 The spread of coffee and coffee shops rapidly in the Arabian peninsula, especially Mecca and Medina.
  • Coffee was introduced in 1453 in Constantinople by the Turks (Ottoman Caliphate). Coffee shop which was first recorded there, named Kiva Han, which opened in 1475.
  • 1600 Pope Clement VIII, confirmed to consider that the 'coffee culture' is a heresy, 'foreign culture' that can threaten the (infidel) and therefore sinful for those who drink it. But then he allowed if the 'coffee' into the (alternative) from the food / beverages are kosher eaten by a Christian. In that year, the coffee was brought from Mekkah to India (Asia Minor)by a man named Baba Budan when pilgrims return from Mekkah .
  • 1616 was brought from Mocha Coffee (Yemen) to the Netherlands.
  • 1645 The first coffee shop opened in Venice, Italy.
  • 1650 The first coffee shop opened in Christian countries (Christendom) precisely in the Oxford.
  • 1658 Dutch opened the first garden in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
  • 1668 coffee shop 'Edward Lloyd's' opened in London. From this coffee shop and then Edward opened the most prominent insurance companies in the world of Lloyd's of London Insurance.
  • 1668 Coffee began to be known in North America.
  • 1669 The coffee shop was introduced in Paris by the Turkish ambassador to the king of Louis XIV.
  • 1670 London devoted to coffee. Coffee shop opened in every corner of London. Coffee was introduced in Germany. In Brazil, coffee cultivation began. Types of coffee grown is the Coffea Arabica Lind.
  • 1674 Women's Petition against coffee issued in London.
  • 1675 dish of tea (tea house) began to be introduced in the Netherlands. Previously there was just serving drinks beer / malt.
  • 1675 King Charles II closes all coffee shops in London.
  • 1679 in Marseilles, a chemist testified that French coffee is destructive and dangerous to human health.
  • 1679 The first coffee shop opened in Hamburg, Germany.
  • 1688 More than 800 local coffee shop opened in Soho (England). Especially by Christian refugees from the French Calvinists (Huguenots).
  • 1689 typical French Café first opened, named Café de Procope, although the atmosphere of crisis after the announcement of coffee harmful to health.
  • 1696 The first coffee shop called The King's Arms opened in New York.
  • A Dutch citizen named Zwaardecroon, brought some seeds from Mecca to Bogor, Indonesia. And, being the most important crops in the Dutch East Indies.
  • 1706 Java Coffee studied Dutch in Amsterdam.
  • 1714 Java Coffee researched, by Dutch introduced and planted in the Jardin des Plantes by King Louis XIV.
  • 1720 Florian stay open coffee shop in Florence.
  • 1723 Gabriel du Clieu bring coffee beans from France to Martinique.
  • 1727 Francisco de Ello brings coffee beans from France for planting in Brazil.
  • 1730 British planted coffee in Jamaica.
  • 1732 Johann Sebastian Bach composes "Coffee Cantata", in Leipzig. Kantata describes the spiritual journey as well as a parody of the fear of Germans against the rapid popularity of coffee in Germany (the German beer enthusiasts).
  • 1777 King of Germany (Prussia) announced a ban on criticism and coffee, and announced as the national drink German beer Kingdom.
  • 1790 British coffee shop is a typical beginning to disappear slowly replaced by a beer tavern (tavern).
  • 1802 Cafe as a word that shows the place was introduced in the UK (formerly coffee house). This word comes from the French word 'café' and almost seakar in Italian 'Caffe'. Café shows a place that is a main restaurant with a menu of coffee drinks.
  • 1809 Coffee was first imported from Brazil into the U.S. market in Salem, Massachusetts.
  • 1820 Substance Caffeine found in coffee drinks in unison by three different studies - and, of course, each researcher was working on their own - made by Runge, Robiquet, Pelletier and Caventou
  • 1822 prototype of an espresso coffee machine made in France.
  • 1839 The word 'Cafeteria' was introduced as the word hybrid (combined) from eksiko, Spain and England.
  • 1859 Michael Thonet's Vienna Café chair No.. 14 (bench particular coffee shop was first introduced as a 'bench suitable for use while sipping coffee. "
  • 1869 Coffee leaf rust (fungus coffee) was first discovered in Sri Lanka and coffee plants in Asia.
  • 1873 Coffee in bulk packaging was first introduced in America by John Arbukle.
  • 1882 The New York Coffee Exchange formed.
  • 1869 outbreak of a fungal disease across Asia that causes destruction of Coffea Arabica coffee manifold Lind, who was widely planted in Asia. Until this year, people started planting various kinds of coffee are numerous in the Congo region.
  • 1904 espresso machine made modern by Fernando Milly.
  • 1906 Brazil raises coffee prices after creating the price (exchange rate) fixed for the commodity coffee.
  • 1910 Germany makes decaf coffee (caffeine in coffee substance reduction to a minimum), Dan was introduced to America by the name Dekafa.
  • 1911 Coffee Traders in the U.S. to form the National Coffee Association.
  • 1915 Pyrex found. First used as a lamp lighting especially on the railroad as a heat-resistant lamp cover and weather or physical impact. Start introduced as a kitchen tool, as a substitute for glass. Coffee shop using a pyrex heat resistant glass.
  • 1920 coffee shop 'new' booming in America.
  • Vienna Café chair No. 1925. 14 were included in the exhibition L'esprit Nouveau in France by Le Corbusier. Until 1933 this bench model produced more than 50 million.
  • 1927 espresso coffee machines were first introduced in America. The first coffee shop wearing 'La Pavoni' in New York. Machine is specially designed by renowned Italian architect Gio Ponti.
  • 1928 Colombian Coffee Federation is formed.
  • 1930-1944 Coffee growers destroy 78 million bags of Brazilian coffee to stabilize prices.
  • 1938 Cremonesi: a piston pump that can spray hot water with high speed to brew coffee.
  • 1938 Nestle find instant coffee in Brazil, Nestle until now the largest producer of instant coffee in the world.
  • 1939-1945 U.S. forces bring instant coffee in the war and introduce it to the world.
  • 1942 People begin hoarding coffee due to wartime shortages. In England at this time coffee is rationed.
  • 1946 Gaggia Factory produces commercial cappuccino machine for the first time. The word cappuccino comes from the color of Capucin Coat.
  • 1948 Achille Gaggia invented the espresso coffee in bulk at Milan.
  • 1952 Gaggia machines imported into the UK. In this year's coffee shop after the second world war for the first time opened in London in July.
  • Espresso Bar 1953 spread all over Soho. The first time was on the road Mocha 29 Frith Street.
  • 1954 restricted the ownership of some commodities such as coffee ends with the end of the second world war transitional period.
  • Catherine Uttley 1957 there were 200 registered coffee bar in London. Starting a lot of coffee bars that use plastics ranging from kitchen equipment, dining, floor to furniture.
  • 1960 carrying coffee bar doubled from 1.000 to 2.000 across the UK, most in the London, about 500 pieces.
  • 1962 Peak of coffee consumption per capita in the United States, 3 cups per person per day.
  • 1962 International Agreement on trade in coffee is made, the intent is to control prices.
  • 1964 Coffee Bar dying in England, replaced by restaurants with a variety of dishes.
  • 1970 Mokha cynical café closed after complaints by American writer William S. Burrough.
  • 1971 Starbuck Outlet first opened in Seattle.
  • 1973 Fair Trade Coffee was first imported to Europe from Guatemala.
  • 1975 Brazil suffered because of failed harvests, world coffee prices soared.
  • 1989 International Coffee Agreement fails to stabilize prices. In the history of the coffee trade down to its lowest level.
  • 1990 Some coffee shops close due to the arrangement of space (redevelopment) in the UK. Introduced organic coffee that are excellent in the world coffee market.
  • 1998 Starbucks reach 2000 Outlets in the U.S. and 5,715 outlets worldwide. Starbucks positioned itself as a coffee shop with the largest network worldwide.
  • source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coffee


history of luwak coffee

luwak get best coffee bean
Civet coffee ever ... this is how history
Animals weasel or mongoose is a mammal that is often encountered in the vicinity of settlements or even very good at climbing this perkotaan.Hewan, more often wandering over the trees, though more often fall into tanah.Musang itself is also more active at night to seek food and others from activities.
Often we find also ferrets roam at night to forage in the settlement, we often encounter even weasel himself climbing the power cord, tile house or even the surrounding buildings and they are always moving into the ground or looking for spaces in the house a lot of food, like in the kitchen or on their own gudang.Musang also like to explore the dense forest with trees because ferrets also like fruits and grains.
Ferret badger own or more often we hear from the public opinion as a chicken thief, even if it appears more frequently ate raccoons various fruits in the forest or in the yard, including bananas, papayas, coffee, and also the fruit timber.
Other prey that are often more inclined to eat civet own small animals, such as earthworms, lizards, ants, including the rat
In places that we often skip or even that we've seen mongoose which are dumping feces, feces in the form of visible grain tercena not in it, so that the seeds remain intact ferret own digestion seems shorter and sederhana15
So that's where it is said badgers or raccoons prefer fruit really ripe to become
mongoose food


Types of Coffee


There are two types of coffee which is very famous in the world, That is Arabica and Robusta
Although worldwide there are about 70 species of coffee trees, from the size of shrubs to trees with a height 12 meters, but only two species of coffee trees, which are generally known to be produced as a product of coffee. Both these species are used for production of about 98 percent of world coffee production.
Coffee was first developed in the world is Arabica Coffee from the species Coffea arabica coffee trees. This type of coffee is the most widely produced, which is about more than 60 percent of world coffee production. Arabica coffee from Coffea arabica species produce the best type of coffee. The tree species is usually grown in upland areas. Coffee tree height is between 4 to 6 meters. Arabica coffee has a caffeine content of not more than 1.5 percent and has a number of chromosomes as many as 44 chromosomes.
Other species of coffee tree is also quite a lot of coffee is produced as Coffea canephora is often known as Robusta coffee. Coffea canephora tree height reaches 12 meters and can be planted in areas with lower than arabica coffee. Robusta coffee is typically used as instant coffee or fast food. Robusta coffee has a higher caffeine content, it seems more neutral, as well as a stronger coffee aroma. The content of caffeine in coffee robusta reach 2.8 percent and has a chromosome number was 22 chromosomes. Robusta coffee production has reached a third of world coffee production.
One type of coffee that is not unusual and very expensive, specialty coffee from Indonesia called Luwak Coffee. Mongoose animal delighted to find a good enough fruits including coffee fruit as food. Coffee beans from the best fruit that is very popular mongoose, after eating discarded along with feces, which previously fermented in the stomach mongoose. Coffee beans like this, in the past often hunted coffee farmers, because it is believed to come from the best coffee beans and fermented naturally. And according to belief, this Luwak coffee taste is really different and special among the fans and coffee lovers 


source : 
http://aromakopiluwak.wordpress.com/2009/05/30/produk-kopi-luwak/


Sabtu, 07 Mei 2011

Pangalengan Bandung

Pangalengan is a small town about 45 km from Bandung to the south is temperate cool and rich with natural beauty. Pangalengan famous producer of a variety of green vegetables that are sent to several cities in Indonesia.
The town is famous as an agricultural area, livestock as well as tea and quinine plantations managed by PTPN and cow milk-producing areas. In this region a lot of industries that processed cow milk into products such as chewing food or milk is often called caramel, milk crackers, dodol milk, tofu milk and dairy noga.
Your journey towards Pangalengan will be a truly enjoyable experience because it will be presented with a lot of charm tourist attractions including plantations, lakes, forests and adventure rafting. Everything is perfect for releasing tension and refresh your mind.
Pangalengan be one location that is being developed ecotourism Bandung regency government to become prime tourist destination through tourism awareness program. Pangalengan famous cool, and producing milk. In this place there are many interesting sights such as the panoramic view of tea gardens, pine forests, and vegetable garden that became a typical scene at an altitude of 1000-1400 meters above sea level.
The small town has a million beautiful natural charm. Here you can find many attractions such as Situ Cileunca, Malabar, Cibolang hot water bath, tea plantations, and many other attractions.
Exploring nature in Pangalengan you can do in one area that is very close, integrated with each other, and the relationship between nature and adventure tourism attractions such as outbound, paintball, flying fox, and other activities. So, you do not have to waste time, energy, the budget also will be more friendly. (UKy)


Civet coffee is real coffee from Indonesia.

Coffee! This high-caffeinated drinks ecstasy ranked 2 worlds, one level below the water in terms of consumption. No fewer than 2 million people every day drinker, coffee became the third largest primary commodity below, oil and gas. Because of its popularity, it's no surprise that there are tens, even hundreds of new varieties that are found intentionally or not appear. Starting from the known to the Arabica coffee, Yamen Mocha, Java, Oxaca, etc.. All these seed varieties, race - the race to supply the coffee, meet the high demand from various countries around the world. Brazil, known as the largest coffee producing country in the world. The country is supplying 2 / 3 or approximately 67.77% in terms of exporting coffee. Next is the country of Kenya. Country located in eastern Africa relies on coffee as its main commodity. While Indonesia itself according to FAO statistics rank 3, as a supplier of world coffee. Incidentally, there are 3 types of superior varieties of this country is very famous and popular by the kafeinisme world, the nickname given to people - the fans of coffee drinks. Into 3 types of coffee are known as the Sumatra coffee (Mandheling Lintong), Sulawesi, and Civet. Sumatra coffee is of superior varieties from Indonesia. At planting in the highlands, making it a sharp aroma, strong, and slightly acidic. This type of Sumatra coffee is the principal ingredient in the manufacture or Doppio Espresso (double espresso), which has a strong aroma of black, pain drowsiness. As for the fans of Star Bucks. World famous coffee shops, which have no less 100 outlets spread across every country, certainly not alien to the taste of coffee Sulawesi. Yup ..! Sulawesi coffee, which is better known abroad as the Village Coffee is used by Star Buck as a raw material mix their kinds of drinks. Starting from Latte macchiato, Viennese roast, Hazelnut chereme, etc.. Because of high demand from Japan, Star Buck even willing to spend them for the sake of patenting this Sulawesi coffee. While the latter is Kopi Luwak. Some of us may still feel alienated by the name of this coffee, some may only know as the label coffee sold in supermarkets. Actually, such as whether this coffee? Perhaps, Luwak Coffee is the most peculiar types of coffee in Indonesia, or even in the world. Why? Because the process of picking Luwak coffee beans are very different from coffee - another coffee. Coffee is generally harvested first and then the seeds are picked when ripe. Meanwhile, the process of picking Luwak coffee, arguably is a bit disgusting. Where when coffee beans are ripe, the farmers took off Civet (a type of civet or civet) to eat the seeds - seeds that fell. After that they waited for the Luwang is throw dirt. Nah! coffee beans that come out simultaneously with that Civet droppings are taken for further processing. Many people who doubt how this case of fermentation. However, researchers at the Canadian research proves, that the protein content in the stomach Luwak, a coffee beans ferment and mature more perfect. Thus, the resulting feeling much better and solid than coffee - coffee the other. Once there was a researcher from the UK dating far - far corners of Java trace only to prove the truth of myth Luwak coffee. However, up to one month duration of his tour of Java, no one who can show the existence of these Luwak coffee. So he says that myth Luwak coffee is just a lie "it's a big Scam." However, as the saying goes. Dogs barking khafilah passed, Civet Coffee has entered into the list of most enjoyable coffee and most wanted. The price in the world market soared. 635 U.S. dollars must be spent to get 1 kg of civet coffee. In America alone, for Luwak coffee tasting, we had to spend $ 50 U.S. dollars, if the exchange rate to dollars, prices range from approximately 400-500 thousand rupiah. ONLY FOR ONE CUP! is equivalent to the price of 2 ribs Toni Romas, who sepiringnya worth 200 thousand. Figures are fantastic just to sip a cup of coffee. This phenomenal coffee even became a hot topic in America, and went on Oprah Winfrey Show. Events Realiti American show which was hosted this Oprah watched no fewer than 4 million people every day. It seemed, when talking about Luwak coffee, people are no longer talking about myth. Myth or not, Luwak coffee from Indonesia is already a go-international, and the title as most expensive coffee and weirdest in the world.
Source: http://id.shvoong.com/society-and-news/news-items/1838253-kopi-luwak-termahal-dan-teraneh/ # ixzz1LhOzFj5F


Minggu, 17 April 2011

Civet Coffee Distributor

Luwak Coffee Lovers

Burst Manufacturer Distributor Luwak coffee across Indonesia's largest, best quality, 100% genuine Luwak coffee, pure without any mixture of regular coffee. First in Indonesia, Luwak Coffee Luwak Coffee Lovers is the product safe for Indigenous health.


The best coffee to satisfy your needs the panikmat coffee, coffee flavor and aroma typical mongoose are suitable for those of you who want the best coffee drinks real.


Civet coffee is very delicate, it is believed that the enzymes in the stomach Luwak coffee beans affects the acidity and the remaining bit is a bit sweet but never sour.


Online Marketing


Luwak Coffee Processing

PROCESSING Process Luwak coffee, AUTHENTICITY PRODUCTS, PROSPECTS AND MARKETING More about: The process of civet coffee PROCESSING, PRODUCTS AUTHENTICITY, PROSPECTS AND MARKETING

Civet coffee processing similar to regular coffee processing only the fermentation process by Weasel / Civet who make different, the fermentation process used is actually the fruit is eaten fresh coffee beans Weasel / Civet mixed with enzymes that are in the digestive tract Weasel / Civet is located inside the abdomen Weasel / Civet during + 2 hours up to +12 hours, it makes the process of fermentation in the digestive tract Weasel / Civet be perfect so as to create an exotic taste of coffee brewed coffee aroma is also very delicious.

Treatment processes that have been developed through several stages namely:

1. From Fruit Red Coffee / Cook stem.
2. Must Coffee Beans Eaten Weasel / Luwak. Fermentation Process In the digestive tract Weasel / Civet during + 2 hours up to + 12 hours.
3. Manure Drying / Brenjel Raw suffocating under the Sun (FULL SUN DRYING) Up to 20% of Water Remaining Up By 25%.
4. Separation From Ari leather Coffee Beans By Mash Manual / traditional With Dimples or using machinery mashed (to be Greenbean / Rice / Sand Coffee Luwak is ready for frying).
5. Sort Rice Dry Luwak Coffee Beans Best Coffee Beans Namely Yang Still Intact And Clean.
6. Back Drying Rice / Beans Coffee Luwak Under The heat of the Sun (FULL SUN DRYING) Water Levels Up Remaining 10% Up By 13%.
7. Washing Up Net.
8. Drying of Water Back Up Remaining 10% Up By 13% Back early.
9. Frying / pengsangraian with manual / traditional firewood is also a traditional frying pan with an iron. Or by in-oven.
10. To color the product composed of black (CITY Roast), blackish brown, and brown. The color depends on the length of the frying pan. In general, coffee lovers in Indonesia and the Asian community is more like the type of coffee that is cooked until black (City Roast). While for some Asian countries like Korea, Japan, Taiwan they like the brown-black. As for the European region is more like the color brown.
11. Pulverization, using a grinding tool that can create true-bnear fine.
12. Furthermore, after the process powder after cooled and packaged in accordance with the measure of consumers booking, Packing Using the sterill to keep the coffee grounds remain fresh for months and even up to a year.

AUTHENTICITY GUARANTEE PRODUCTS

The number of coffee products and coffee producers mongoose mongoose so the level of competition will increase, cheating in trade are often found in the field that will indirectly harm consumers and create original product Luwak coffee will decrease the quality and price. Coffee production is highly dependent of the animal mongoose mongoose, mongoose capacity of food and farming is very limited at all, because there is no specific research in animal behavior is in ferment the coffee, the trend of irresponsible parties make deceptive product by civet coffee mixed with coffee ordinary. With the aim that the quantity increases, Automatic it will impact at all on customer satisfaction. Thus the originality of civet coffee product must exist. Guarantee the authenticity of civet coffee products are in addition to already recognized by dipartemen health and parties related to food quality inspector, can also be seen directly to the address of the manufacturer, and can perform the MOU agreement between both parties.

More about: The process of civet coffee PROCESSING, PRODUCTS AUTHENTICITY, PROSPECTS AND MARKETING
source:
http://id.shvoong.com/lifestyle/food-and-drink/2023080-proses-pengolahan-kopi-luwak-keaslian/


Selasa, 12 April 2011

Best coffee bean

Best coffee beans should select what kind?
coffee beans
Many people confuse the choice about what kind of coffee should they choose. Maybe you've heard questions like these: "Where better yes, robusta, arabica or the other huh?" I think the answer is "it depends". Depending on this point: which one is better is determined by the user.
Before we discuss further, it's good I have to say about the types of coffee available. Actually there are more than 60 species of coffee. Among these species, only 2 developed a large scale for consumption of coffee connoisseurs. Both types are Arabica and Robusta. Both have typical, distinct taste and aroma.
Each type (both Arabica and Robusta) will have the taste and aroma are quite varied, if coming from different places. For example: the taste and aroma of arabica coffee of Java will be different with arabica coffee lampung or flores.
Here are the hallmark of Arabica coffee in general:
- Having a distinctive sour taste. How sour taste will be quite varied between types of arabica with each other.
- Has a distinctive aroma and delicious.
- It's bitter and mantab
- Levels of 50% less caffeine than Robusta coffee
Here are the hallmark of Robusta coffee in general:
- Having a distinctive sour taste. There are no sour taste at all.
- Having a sweet scent.
- It's mild / gentle
- Levels 2 times more caffeine than Arabica coffee
So, which one should you choose?
To dish that uses milk, cream, coconut milk, or other material that feels delicious (as do the majority of the menu at the Coffee House) should you use Arabica coffee.
For a simple dish of coffee that does not use the material above, for example: just mix the sugar, honey, cinnamon, or similar material, you can adjust to taste. It's up to you, would select Arabica or Robusta. But for a unique taste, you should use the Java product Maxima Perfect Blend. This product contains a secret blend of different types of coffee (not just the common type of coffee that you encounter). The taste and aroma is really suitable for serving black coffee (black coffee) and instant coffee.
To diet / lose weight, you can consume Robusta coffee prior to exercise. High caffeine will help you burn calories better.
To accompany work overtime or to ward off fatigue and drowsiness, you can consume coffee Robusta.


whole coffee beans

 Once roasted, coffee has a short shelf life. In as little as two weeks the coffee loses much of its flavor and may develop a stale taste. Whole Coffee beans store better than ground coffee because the oil in the beans has not yet been exposed to air, which causes the oil and the flavor to evaporate. Purchasing whole beans and grinding them as needed for each brewing ensures that each cup taste its best, but the roasted beans require proper storage so they retain their flavor for as long as possible.


Difficulty:
Easy

Instructions


things you'll need:

  • Glass storage jar

    • 1
      Open the package the roasted beans came in. Nearly any type of bag allows moisture and air to leach in to some extent. Pour the beans into a glass storage container with a rubber-ring seal.
    • 2
      Place the lid on the container and check that the rubber ring is lined up between the lid and the jar correctly. Fasten the lid in place.
    • 3
      Place the container in a dark, dry area, such as a pantry. Alternately, store the coffee in the freezer.
    • 4
      Each day, remove only as many coffee beans that you plan to grind and use. Take care not to introduce any moisture to the jar. Secure the lid properly in place before returning the coffee to storage.
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Tips & Warnings

  • Store ground coffee the same way, but be aware it should be used within a week.
  • Substitute an airtight plastic container for the glass jar if necessary, though the beans do not retain their flavor as well when stored in plastic.
  • Most whole bean coffees lose their flavor and aroma within a month. Only buy as much as you can reasonably use within a one- to two-week period.

References

  • Coffee beans image by Nikolay Okhitin from Fotolia.com 
source : http://www.ehow.com/how_6947470_store-roasted-whole-coffee-beans.html


Kamis, 17 Maret 2011

Bestsellers Sweeney


And Luwak Coffee increases Bestsellers

Editor: Ignatius Sawabi

Monday, August 2, 2010 | 8:16 pm



LIWA, KOMPAS.com — Long discussion about halal or haraam Luwak coffee profitable commodity trader. Sales of coffee badgers in West Lampung District increased by 30 percent even though the price is expensive, which is Rp 200,000 and Rp 750,000 per kilogram. "Lately, the public increasingly wants to know how the coffee taste real badger so that the sales increases," said Wahyudi Santoso Luwak coffee trader at Village Way Confess, Behind the Hill Districts of West Lampung, about 278 km west of Bandar Lampung, on Monday (08/02/2010 .) He said the increased sales of highly profitable coffee badgers were farmers. High interest in the community against this type of coffee was also seen in the Exhibition Building in Bandar Lampung, Lampung implemented from July. "The response of the public looks at the implementation of Lampung Fair. They dig badgers out more about coffee, good animal husbandry, cultivation, to process the coffee powder," he said. He said himself in the exhibition building was able to sell 70 kg of coffee powder badger. Coffee badger origin of West Lampung District has a high quality, so demand for commodities is likely to rise from year to year.
    
West Lampung coffee exports largest badger sent to South Korea and Taiwan. Price badger quality ground coffee exports reached USD 750.000/kg, while the price of civet coffee is still shaped glondong or spheres reach USD 200.000/kg. Previously Head of West Lampung Mukhlis Basri said, the quality badger West Lampung coffee include the best in Indonesia. "The production of coffee from Lampung Barat badger dare to compete with other regions in Indonesia. Badger Processing of coffee beans into coffee powder also still consider the quality," he said. Related to that, he said badgers into commodities coffee West Lampung. He also asked farmers to maintain quality of the coffee. "Coffee farmers should be smart to seize opportunities that exist and coffee badgers became a good opportunity to develop into commodities," he said. Meanwhile, the price of ground coffee in West Lampung last July to Rp 12,700 to Rp 13.000/kg. While commodity prices of dry beans at the farmer level in South Lampung regency remained at USD 13.000/kg. source:

http://bisniskeuangan.kompas.com/read/2010/08/02/08160332/Dan.Kopi.Luwak.Pun.Tambah.Laris



 

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